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Clues in Names

Clues in Names

  1. Clues in Names”
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  4. (Excerpted from Unpuzzling Your Past. Fourth Edition, Updated, by Emily Anne Croom, pp. 37-39.)
  5. Naming practices vary from place to place and generation to generation. However, certain consistencies have existed for nearly four centuries in the area we now call the United States. Children were, and still are, often named for parents, grandparents, and other relatives.
  6. Namesakes

    For generations, given names have come from surnames, such as Allen, Cameron, Clyde, Davis, Dudley, Elliot, Glenn, Keith, Lloyd, Spencer, and many others. This practice gave these nineteenth-century Southerners interesting name combinations: Green Cash, Ransom Cash, Pleasant Pigg, Wiley Crook, Hardy Flowers, Eaton Cotton, Green P. Rice, and DeForest Menace. When an ancestor has a surname as a given name, think clue. Was it the mother’s maiden name? A grandmother’s maiden name? Another relative’s given name? Only research can answer these questions.

    For example, Benjamin Allen Phillips (1801) was named for his grandfather Benjamin Allen. Emily Cooper (1882) was named for her father’s deceased first wife, Emily (Blalock) Cooper. Emily Cooper Blalock (1874) was named for the same deceased lady, in this case, her father’s sister. On the other hand, Pitser Miller Blaloc (1848) was named for a neighbor not thought to be a relative.

  7. Naming Patterns

    Various genealogists have suggested a pattern to naming practices of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries in England and Wales, which may give clues for studying families of the American colonies and the United States.

    Eldest son-often named for the father’s father
    Second son-for the mother’s father
    Third son-for the father
    Fourth son-for the father’s eldest brother
    Eldest daughter-for the mother’s mother
    Second daughter for the father’s mother
    Third daughter-for the mother
    Fourth daughter-for the mother’s eldest sister

    In the United States, this pattern may be considered a possibility but not a rule. Some families did name eldest sons for paternal grandfathers, but the naming of children for relatives generally followed no particular pattern or order. Families also named eldest sons for relatives on both sides of the family or for no one in particular.

    Each of the following was an eldest child. Hunter Orgain Metcalfe (1887) was given his maternal grandmother’s maiden name, Orgain. Samuel Black Brelsford (1829) was named for his maternal grandfather, Samuel Black. Edward Philpot Blalock (1837) was named for his father’s foster brother, Edward Philpot. Mary Eliza Catherine Coleman (1848) received a name from each.grandmother.

    Be alert to recurring given names or middle names in a family, especially over several generations. The middle name Steele in the Isaac McFadden family of Chester County, South Carolina, was used for one of his children and several of his grandchildren and great-grandchildren. The name turned out to be the maiden name of Isaac’s first wife, Elizabeth Steele. The other recurring middle name in that family was Ewing, the middle name of two of Isaac’s children and several descendants. Perhaps it is a clue to someone else’s maiden name. Studying the extended family cluster helps you identify such repetition of names and may identify the reason.

  8. Given Names

    The genealogist becomes aware of other naming practices. Of course, a daughter was, and still is, sometimes given a feminine form of her father’s name: Josephine (Joseph), Georgianna (George), Pauline (Paul), or Philippa (Philip). Almanzon Huston had a daughter named Almazona.

    Some children were, and are, indeed named for relatives. However, others carry the names of famous Americans or prominent local personalities. In the early years of the republic, some families showed their patriotic feelings by naming daughters or sons Liberty, Justice, or America. Other nineteenth-century families gave daughters the same names as states and cities: Arizona, Carolina, Georgia, Indiana, Louisiana, Missouri, Philadelphia, Tennessee, and Virginia. Nineteenth-century census records revealed these interesting names. Florida Ferry, Arkansas Neighbors, French Fort, Egypt Land, Vienna Wood, and Australia Shepherd.

    These people from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries had a title for a given name: Major Topping, Admiral Croom, Squire Blalock, Pharaoh Lee, Doctor Godwin, Lieutenant Campbell, and Patsy Empress Jones.

    Every culture and era seem to have names whose origins are obscure. They may be nicknames, made-up names, combinations of other names, names of characters in literature of the period, or place names. Parents may have simply liked the sound of a name or wanted to choose something different. Sometimes the names researchers find in records are the result of phonetic spelling. Some may be corruptions of other names or attempts to keep names in a family within a particular pattern, such as names in alphabetical order or names beginning with the same initials. These are some of the numerous such names found in this country from 1750 to the present: Benoba, Bivy, Bozilla, Callie, Dicy, Dovie, Fena, Floice, Hattie, Jincey, Kitsey, Laney, Levicy, Lottie, Lovie, Luvenia, Mittie, Nicey, Olan, Olean, Ora, Ottie, Ozora, Parilee, Parizade, Periby, (Pheribah, PheribyY, Fereby), Perlissa, Rebia, and Sinah.

  9. Of related interest . . .
    If you want to examine naming practices in greater depth–and enjoy yourself in the process–be sure to get your hands on Lloyd Bockstruck’s brand new book, The Name IS the Game. This concise, illustrative book covers the role of aliases, adoption of a step-parent’s surname, the role of dialects, surname abbreviations, use of maiden names as forenames, ethnic naming patterns, and much more. By the time you finish this book, you will be much more cognizant that a name change may be the actual cause of an ancestor’s “disappearance,” and, best of all, will possess the tools for finding the missing antecedent. For more information, visit the following URL:
  10. http://www.genealogical.com/
  11. index.php?main_page=product_
  12. info&item_number=8006

Spelling and Your Ancestors

Spelling and Your Ancestors


(The following article is excerpted from Val Greenwood’s acclaimed textbook, The Researcher’s Guide to American Genealogy. 3rd Edition, pp. 32-35, which is described at the end of this excerpt.)

The lack of standardized spellings and the use of phonetic spellings can be very sticky problems. If you go back just 100 years you will find that a large percentage of the population could not read, more still could not write (and many people were able to write only their own names), and even more could not spell. Most persons who did write did not concern themselves particularly with so-called standard spellings, but rather spelled words just as they sounded–phonetically–with local accents. Also realize that the early settlers of America were emigrants from many foreign lands. There were many accents, and when records were made the scribe wrote what he heard, accent and all.

What is the significance of these facts? It means that you will oftentimes be called upon to decipher scripts in which you will puzzle over simple words just because they are misspelled and written in an unfamiliar hand.

However, the main problem is in the spellings of names (especially surnames) and places. In the will which he made in 1754 in Pasquotank County, North Carolina, Jeremiah Wilcox’s surname is spelled two different ways–Willcox and Willcocks. In other documents it is spelled still other ways–Wilcox, Wilcocks, Welcox, Wellcocks, Welcocks, etc.–but Jeremiah could not write himself (he made a mark for his signature) so he probably had no idea as to what the correct spelling was or if it was ever being spelled correctly. The name and its spelling were entirely at the mercy of the person who chanced to make the record.

This highlights the fallacy of a practice common in many modern families–that of assuming that if the name is not spelled in a certain way it cannot belong to the same family. Persons with such ideas will pass over important genealogical records because the name happens to be spelled with an “a” rather than an “e,” with an “ie” rather than a “y,” or with one “n” rather than with two. Be especially careful of this when the two related spellings of a name are found in the same geographic area. The connection, of course, is not guaranteed, as it is not guaranteed even when the spellings are exactly the same, but it is worth investigating the possibility.

Also, because of this spelling problem, we must be extremely careful in our use of indexes. We must consider every possible spelling of the name sought. It is very easy to overlook some of the less logical (to us) possibilities and thus many valuable records. Local dialects and foreign accents often make a significant difference. The pronunciation of a name may be quite different in Massachusetts than it is in Georgia, and so might its spelling.

In law this is called the Rule of “Idem Sonans.” This means that in order to establish legal proof of relationship from documentary evidence it is not necessary for the name to be spelled absolutely accurately if, as spelled, it conveys to the ear, when pronounced in the accepted ways, a sound practically identical to the correctly spelled name as properly pronounced.

A few years ago I worked for some time on a problem where the same surname was found spelled twenty-four different ways in the very same locality, some of them even beginning with a different letter of the alphabet. The correct spelling of the name (supposedly) was “Ingold,” but the following variations were found: Ingle, Ingell, Ingles, Ingells, Ingel, Ingels, Ingeld, Inkle, Inkles, Inkell, Ingolde, Engold, Engolde, Engle, Engell, Engles, Engells, Engel, Engels, Engeld, Angold, Angle, and Ankold. These several variations were all found in the same family at the same time. Would you have considered all of them, or would you have stopped with those that began with “I”?

Other less likely possibilities for this name are Jugold and Jugle. Such errors could easily occur in an index because of the similarities between the capital I’s and J’s and the small n’s and u’s.

Another family changed the spelling of its name from Beatty to Baitey when moving from one location to another. In still another instance the surname Kerr was found interchanged with Carr. Whether these spelling changes were intentional is unknown, but the intention makes little difference. In one family three brothers deliberately spelled their surname in different ways–Matlock, Matlack, and Matlick. In his history of the Zabriskie family, George 0. Zabriskie reports having dealt with 123 variations of that name, though certainly not all in the same locality or the same time period. [END of excerpt]

If you found this excerpt fascinating–and helpful–you might want to take a closer look  at Val Greenwood’s handy textbook, The Researcher’s Guide to American Genealogy. 3rd Edition. Among other things, The Researcher’s Guide contains an in-depth discussion of death and other vital records in the U.S., including where and how to find them. This third edition incorporates the latest thinking on genealogy and computers, specifically the relationship between computer technology (the Internet and CD-ROM) and the timeless principles of good genealogical research. It also includes a new chapter on the property rights of women, a revised chapter on the evaluation of genealogical evidence, and updated information on the 1920 census. Arguably the best book ever written on American genealogy, it is the text of choice in colleges and universities or wherever courses in American genealogy are taught.

For more information or to order, visit the following URL:


Of Related Interest . . .

Reading Early American Handwriting

This book is designed to teach you how to read and understand the handwriting found in documents commonly used in genealogical research. It explains techniques for reading early American documents; provides samples of alphabets and letter forms; defines terms and abbreviations commonly used in early American documents such as wills, deeds, and church records; and, furthermore, presents numerous examples of early American records for the reader to work with. Each document–nearly 100 of them at various stages of complexity–appears with the author’s transcription on a facing page, enabling the reader to check his/her own transcription. Also covered in the book, with particular emphasis on handwriting, are numbers and roman numerals, dates and the change from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar, abbreviations and contractions, and standard terms found in early American records.

What’s in a Name? Everything You Wanted to Know

This charming book by Leonard Ashley will tell you the facts behind the names of persons, places, and things; about how names are chosen for business and for success; how they are used for everything from tracing settlement patterns to telling fortunes; how given names have their fashions; where surnames had their origins–everything you wanted to know about names in the U.S. and around the globe.

American Surnames

This classic from etymologist Elsdon Smith begins with a discussion of the development of hereditary surnames and then concentrates on six broad categories: classification of surnames, surnames from father’s name (patronymics), surnames from occupation or office, surnames from description or action (nicknames), surnames from places, and surnames not properly included elsewhere.

Finding Living Relatives

Online Resources for Finding Living Relatives, Part II: The Sources,” by William Dollarhide

“The Best Internet Sites for Finding Living Relatives,” which appeared in Everton’s “Genealogical Helper,” Vol. 61, Issue No. 5 (Sep-Oct 2007). Reprinted by permission. The first part of the article appeared in last week’s issue of “Genealogy Pointers” (07-28-09).] Researchers have a number of good tools at their disposal for finding living relatives. Here are the top 25 People Finder websites from Everton Publisher’s Best Rated Genealogy Sites: FIRST PLACES TO LOOK – Google (www.google.com/advanced_search). Free site. If the surname is fairly common, use the Advanced Search option, “with at least one of the words.” Keywords might include “living,” “born,” “married,” or “resides.” – Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com). Subscription site. There are more names here from recent directories and public records databases than any other place on the Internet. Non-members may search the indexes for free. – ProGenealogists.com (www.progenealogists.com/genealogysleuthb.htm). Free site. The Genealogy Sleuth pages are portals to the “Find Living Relatives” websites most used by professional genealogists. Contains direct links to all of the websites listed below. LIBRARY RESOURCES – ReferenceUSA (www.slco.lib.ut.us/database-referenceUSA.htm). Free to library patrons only. This large database of names from current directories is found at subscribing libraries only. Check with your local library to see if they subscribe and perhaps allow home access via a library card ID. – Telephone Directories and Locators (www.slco.lib.ut.us/TELEDIRS.HTM). Free site. An

example of a portal with links to several online directories, this is a webpage sponsored by the Salt Lake County Library System. There are more of these types of sites at libraries all over the country. FREE DIRECTORY LOOKUP SITES – ZabaSearch.com (http://zabasearch.com). Free site. Free people search and much more. There are probably more names here than at any other free site. (For virtually every test name that I used at all of the free sites, ZabaSeach.com came back with five times the number of responses as the other sites.) But search the other sites as well–there will be sites where certain names appear nowhere else. – 411.Info (www.411.info/). Free site. Very complete U.S. directory lookups. See also http://www.411.ca/ for Canadian directories. – DA+ (Directory Assistance Plus) (www.daplus.us/). Free site. A service of InfoUSA, this public directory lookup service is very complete. – InfoSpace.com (www.infospace.com). Free site. The search engine for Dogpile, MetaCrawler, WebCrawler, and WebFetch, and with directory listings from SuperPages, BellSouth, and Yellow Book, this is an important stop in your directory searching. – The Ultimate White Pages (www.theultimates.com/white/). Free site. Featuring six different directory lookups on the same page, this site may save you time and effort. – SearchBug.com (www.searchbug.com/peoplefinder/). Free site. Includes White Pages, Yellow Pages, and names from the PeopleFinders.com site (for fee-based extended searches). – SuperPages.com (www.superpages.com/). Free site. White Pages and Yellow Pages are well done at this site, with a good-sized database of names. – WhitePages.com (www.whitepages.com/). Free site. Includes White Pages, Yellow Pages, and extended name lists from the USSearch.com site (for fee-based searches). U.S. PUBLIC RECORDS DATABASES (Fee-based Searches) – USSearch.com (1-800-U.S. Search) (www.ussearch.com/consumer/index.jsp). Fee-based searches. Remember their TV ads back in the 1990s, “Find anyone, call Nick.” The company has more than one billion names indexed from many public records. – PeopleFinders.com (www.peoplefinders.com/). Fee-based searches. More than one billion names from public records. The lookup of names is free, but the results list will have only the name and city/state of residence. There’s a fee if you want more information. – Intelius.com (www.intelius.com/). Fee-based searches. For over one billion names, the index search is free, but the results list will give you only the name and city/state of residence. PEOPLE & ADDRESS DATABASE FINDING TOOLS – SearchSystems.net (www.searchsystems.net/). Subscription site. The largest directory of U.S. Public Records on the Internet, this site is a resource for business information, corporate filings,

property records, deeds, mortgages, criminal and civil court filings, inmates, offenders, births, deaths, marriages, unclaimed property, professional licenses, and much more. The site is a portal to searchable databases containing billions of names. This is not a master index, but rather an identification and link to more than 46,313 public records databases where online searching for people can take place. At $9.95/month, a SearchSystem.net subscription may provide “more bang for the buck” than any other site. – NetrOnline.com (www.netronline.com/public_records.htm). Free site. This site is a portal to find any county of the U.S. with real estate records online. Not all counties have these records online, but those that do can be found here from a list of all 3,146 U.S. counties. The county Assessors, Recorders, Auditors, etc., are the official repositories for recorded deeds, tax assessments, and property histories–all excellent sources for names, addresses, and phone numbers. – VirtualGumshoe.com (www.virtualgumshoe.com/). Subscription site. Designed for private investigators, this site has the largest nationwide criminal database on the Web. Maybe your missing relative is not lost at all, just serving time. – MilissaData.com (www.melissadata.com/lookups/index.htm). Free site. Designed for direct marketers, this site has a Free Lookups page with direct links to websites relating to the nature of places in the U.S., i.e., addresses, zip codes, area codes, sub-division maps, house numbers, street names, radius searches, carrier route searches, county maps, census maps, school district maps, city maps, U.S. place name databases, world place name databases, and much more. Another name for this site might be, “A Genealogist’s Find-the-Place Toolbox.” INTERNATIONAL DIRECTORIES – Infobel.com (http://infobel.com/world/default.asp). Free site. This is a portal to directory name lists online for more than 200 countries around the world. At each country, a list of directory titles is shown, and a click on a title takes you directly to the website with that online name list. Although many of the directories are in the language of the country, virtually every country has directories in English as well. – Numberway.com (www.numberway.com). Free site. At first, Numberway.com looks like a rip-off of Infobel.com because it uses the same maps and regions and it lists the countries in the same order. But a look at the directory titles reveals that the Numberway lists are often unique and not repeats of the Infobel lists, and Numberway usually contains more directories listed for a particular country. On the other hand, Infobel.com has directory titles not listed at Numberway. Therefore, one should use both of these world directory portal sites to see what is available online. – 192.com (www.192.com). Free site (plus fee-based details). The free portion is for a directory lookup for all of Great Britain. There are some unique databases here, such as the annual British voter lists (Electoral Rolls) for 2002-2007, which are fee-based searches. Criteria for a search requires the name of the village/town/city. – The Phone Book (BT) (www.thephonebook.bt.com/). Free site. British Telecom, now just BT, is the dominate telecommunications system in the UK. Free lookups in current telephone directories for all of Great Britain are at this site. A search requires the name of the village/town/city. – UK Phonebook.com (www.ukphonebook.com). Free membership site. This is a private

directory publisher for all of Great Britain, and the enhanced name lists are very good. Searching here is also by place, but this site includes an interactive map at the search box screen, which can be very useful in finding a place name. [End of article] EDITOR’S NOTE: We should add that Mr. Dollarhide’s book, GETTING STARTED IN GENEALOGY ONLINE is another good source of links to websites with information on living forebears, including records of birth, marriage, or death. Pick up a copy and learn which websites can open the doors for you to the most important genealogy collections in libraries, archives, and genealogical societies for all 50 states. Designed as a beginner’s guide, this book’s 64 pages pack more clout than any 64 pages ever written on the subject of online genealogy. The book includes the author’s unique seven-step system for gathering facts essential for any genealogical project. At the back of the book are Master Forms the reader can use to keep track of research information. What more could you ask for in such a small package?

History of Randolph County, Indiana By E. Tucker

History of Randolph County, Indiana  By E. Tucker

Green Township

Pages 499-503

perhaps reveal to those who may nt thnt time be inhabitants of this region and to the dwellers in this county, in thnt distant era; and to the historian of that coming time, we trustfully commit the now Intent possibilities and the yet unrevealed history of that rising city.

StrnbtHpillr. -Israel Wirt. Jonathan Groen. proprietors. Location. Sections 13 and 14. Town 21. Range 12; C. G. Goodrich, survevor. Flat snrveyod December 24. 1830. Recorded July 28, 1840; twenty, four’lots. Town extinct.

It was laid out by Israel Wirt and Jonathan Green in 1840. It stands upon Sections 13 and 14. Town 21. Range 12. on the south side of the Mississinewa River, though not very near to that stream. There was once a tanynrd, a store, kept by Israel Wirt, a smith shop by Julian and four or live houses. A cemetery lies near the plae« which is still in use and in reasonable ropnir. Thr town never did much business, nor was ever prosperous, and it has been entirely dead for more than twenty years. The place is not oven a cross-roads.” but a spot where <tu east and west road strikes a north and south one. Mr. Wirt, one of the proprietors, was one of the first pioneers of that region, and died in the summer of 1890, at the advanced age of about eighty years. The town was surveyed and platted December 24. 1830, and recorded July 2S. 1540. Though planted during the early settlement of the township, fate wns against it. and it had to succumb.


Thomas Hubbard has a stone quarry north of Fairvicw. Mr. Dougherty has a stone quarry one mile east of Fairview.

Greeu Township is somewhat strongly Republican in politics.

Gravel is by no means scarce, though the people are only lately beginning to realize what use to make of it nod to apply it thereto. Sand is obtained chiotly from the bod of the Mississinewa, and the quality is good.

There have been no pikes in the region. The first in the township wns commenced in 1880 from Ridgeville west to the county line via Fairviow. nnd others, also, arc projected in various directions.


No railroads cross the limits of Grocn, yet five lines are within a moderate distance from Fairvicw: Pan-Handle road, with stations as follows: Powers, seven miles from Fairview; Redkey. live miles; Dunkirk, six and ono hnlf mires.

” Boe Line ”—Parker, eight miles; Farmland, eleven miles. Shoe-Fly nud l’nn-Handle Crossing “—Ridgevillo, oight miles.

Muncie & Fort Wayne Railroad—Eaton, nine miles.

Lake Erie & Western—Albany, two and one-half miles

Thus the people of Green Township are well supplied with markets in every direction, hut all outside their own limits, and. heronftor, towns in Green Township will be hard to find nnd equally difficult to locate and build

Philip Bargor l»orn in Fayette County. Ohio, in 1S15. His j parents were Virginians who left that Stnto on account of slnv- | ory. His father died when Philip was young. Mr. Barger : came to look at the country in 1840, nnd enter*! land in the fall of that yoar (145 acres). He married Elizabeth Strong October I 4, 1838. in Delawaro County, Ind.. came to Randolph County, Ind.. to live and settle October 24. 1838. They have had seven children, four of whom grew up and throe nre living. His wife died August 7, 1877. He has been by occupation a farmer, and has also held sevoral public trust*. He has been Township Assessor, Justice of tho Peace four years, County Commissioner two terms, once about thirty years ago, and also in 1572-75 He i was one of the board that built the new court house, and is satisBed that they did right He has a line farm, is an active, intol- , ligent man. n Republican, a strong temperance man. and alto- I gother a valuable and esteemed citizen. He is substantial and j reliable, solid but uot showy, fond of knowledge, has a large | supply of instructive books, a steadfast friend and supporter of i morality and education nnd of every good cause. Although I verging toward threescore years and ten, he is yet strong and ! vigorous, and enjoys ntteution to business.

John Bone is nn early settler. He has been twice married. He is a mechanic nnd a farmer, and, though now threescore years and ten. he yut practices his trade as a carpenter. He was once a Whig, but is now a Democrat, since he votes with that party. Ho is ovor seventy years old. and has resided in Green Township for moro forty-five years and now resides in the little town of Fairview.

Thomas Brown was born in East Tennessee, and came to Randolph County. Ind., in 1832, settling in Green Township in 1833. His family were all grown nod married, and all came together to the now country. They were David, Thomas and

James, sons nnd married; Rebecca (Davis), (McCarnish).

Sarah (Green), (White), Catharine (Gray). They all

settled together, making up a colony in the woods. Nearly the whole connection (except the Greens) went to Iowa about 1S37, leaving their places for ether new-comers.

John Ford was born in the city of New York in 1S02; his father removed to Richmond, Ya., in 1808, and afterward to Rockbridge County, Va In 1810, they came to Fayette County, Ohio, and, in 1823. to Clinton County, Ohio. Young Ford was now of age, but poor and dostituto, yet bent on earning a home, nnd traveled a gTcat doal in early life. He married Elizabeth Johnson in Clinton County in 1827. In 1820, ho came to Randolph Countv. and roamed the woods back and forth. From Judge Sample’s, on White River, to John Byles’, in Delaware County, there was no road nor tho somblance of one. He selected land where Albany now stands, but his uncle dissuaded him. declaring thnt ho (Ford) would never live to see it settled. Ho did. finally, some years afterward, August 20, 1838, enter land in Green’ Township, 120 acres. E. X. E. and X. W. N. E. 25, 21, 12. on Elkhorn. He moved to the tract in 1530, and has resided upon it forty-two years. He is a farmer, has owned 240 acres, now has 101) acres. He was s Presbyterian, but there have been none in tho region, and he has stood aloof from church membership. In politics, originally n Democrat, ho has been of late years a Republican. Whon he raised bis cabin men had to come from Cabin Creek to help him perform the work. When he explored the region, in 1820. he came to Sample’s Mill, struck across the woods, pathless nnd waste, to John Byles’. looked at the land, thence took an Indian trail to the ” Godfrey trace,” and followed it to somewhere north of Winchester, got lost, but found his way to Winchester before his comrades arrived. M’hat was remarkable, ho says he was not aware of any settlers on tho Mississinewa. At Winchester the court bouse was made of beech logs. Thero was onlv one frarao building in the town. From Winchester he struck {or Greenville, performing tho whole journey on foot.

(Note.—It would seem ns though Mr. Ford’s journey must have been earlier than he puts it. as the brick court house was let in 1820 and finished in 1328.)

Mr. Ford has been a groat hunter, hnving killed oight deer in one day, nod three or four often, nnd sometimes live. He has killed the highest number spoken of above in half s Jay. He shot forty-nine that first fait, from October to a little after NewYear’s. The skins and the hams he would sell, the rest of the carcass would, for the most part, be left in the woods.

Mr. Ford says there was one store and quite a good one. and nothing elso. at the town of Rockingham, on the Mississinewa. located on Section 17. Town 21, Range 13, five miles west of Ridgeville. and recorded March 20, 1830. It seems that the towu died, for Mr. Ford is the first person who appears to have known that such a town wns ever there. He says that the store continued about eighteen months, but that the town was never built and thnt thurc wot never anything besides. Mr. Ford has but a slonder appreciation of the glory of Lewallyn’s Mill, at Ridgeville, since he says that it was a little old “corn-cracker not much larger than a hog pen.” Probably it was not very sightly beside the modern palaces at which farmers get their wheat changed to superfine flour of the most superior brand However, ninny a worthy family were profoundly thankful for the existence of that poor little mill, and lived bounteously on the corn meal made by running the corn through its home-made mill-stones. Mr. Ford enjoys a sprightly old age, having borne cheerfully and well the hardships and privations of his wilderness hunter life.

Nathan Godwin was born in Delaware in 1730. He married Elizabeth West in 1810; she was bora in 1784. They had seven children, all of whom are living, and nil ore marrieJ and have families, some of them large ones. Mr. Godwin has bad fortysix grandchildren and eighty great-grandchildren. He emigrated from Delaware to Virginia, thence to Pennsylvania, thence to Highland County, Ohio, and from there to Green Township, Randolph County, Ind., in 1837. Ue entered 520 acres of land, and bought eighty acres more, making in all 000 acres. He was a farmer, a Methodist and a Republican. He lived to be very old. dying in 1875, at the great age of ninety-five years oigbt months and eight days. His body was interred at Foirview Cemetery, as was also his wifo, wbo died many years before her husband. July ’24, 1843, aged fifty-eight years nine months and three days.

Thomas Godwin is the youngest son of Nathan Godwin. He was born in 1300, married Nanoy Ann Ewing, in 1845, has had ten children, six of whom are living, and three are married. He lives in the town of Fairview and keeps a iiotel there, being also a farmer, owning 102 acres of land. He is a Methodist and a Republican. He is an active and respected member of ton community, and a loading and influential citizen.

Jonathan Green was bora in East Tennessee in 1702. He emigrated to Randolph County in 1832, living a year at Sampletown, and settling in Green Township in 1833. He entered three J forties” and followed the vocation of farming till his death, in 18S0, at the age of sixty.seven. He wss the first Justice of the Peace in Green Township, and held the office sixteen years. He married Sarah Brown in East Tennessee and they had eleven children, eight of whom grew up, seven were married aud six ore living now. When he came Alexander Garringer and Martin Boots ware the only persons residing in (he township, three miles down the river opposite Fairview. He came in March, cleared six acres and planted it in corn, having raised a crop in 1832 on White Rivor, and, daring the summer of 1834, bought a little corn and never bought another bushel of com as long as he lived. Only oon house was to be found on the way to White River, Peter Hester’s. William Addington lived at Ridgeville. James Addington came on the Mississinewa after awhile. He came near being broken up at one time. The clerk of a mercantile firm at Rockingham (a town on the Mississinewa below Ridgeville, long years ago oxtinct) left some notes belonging to the firm with him. as Magistrate, to be collected, with order* to pay the money to certain creditors of the firm. He did so, but the firm denied his anthority. and sued him for the money. The olerk had absconded, and as he could not prove his authority for ton payments he had made, the rascally firm got judgment against him, and he had to refnnd to thorn 1300 or $400, which in those times was a greet snm. A large company of relatives cam* together from Tennessee, the Brown connection, comprising some nine families, and all settled on the Missis sinews. They stopped a year on White River and raised a crop, entered their land, went over to the Mississinewa and builtshantiea, and, in March, 1833, moved to their new homes, and sottled down to live in good earnest. They had built up the ” pens ” to the chimneys, with no jambs, nor back walls, nor chimney tops, and filed those things afterward.

The wolves were thick around. One day the dogs barked, and father, looking nut. saw two wolves near at hand A loaded gun lay on the hooks just behind him. within easy reach, but, forgetting the gun. he slapped his hand* and halloed at them and the villains scampered off. The hogs had to be penned up so tight that the wolves could not get at thein.

Julian Green, son of Jonathan Green, was born in East Tennessee iu 1328, coming with his father to Randolph iu 1332, and his home has boen here over since. He ia a farmer and has seven children, residing at present in Franklin Township.

Thomas Hubbard was born in Delaware in 1301. came to Ross County, Ohio, in 1807. to Fayette County. Ind.. in IS 11, and to Randolph County, Ind., in 1337. He married Eleanor Rogers, born in 1807, in 1827, and they have had twelve chil

dren; nine of them are living and all the nine .ire marriedFour live in Randolph County, one in Jay County, two in Iowa and two in California. Mr. Hubbard and his wife, though well advanced in years, enjoy good health and strength and seem happy in their old ago. They live noor Fairview on the land which he purchased when they came to the county forty-four years ago, and since their wedding day fifty-four years hnve elapsed into eternity, and should they bo spared to see a few more annual 3uns complete their roucd, they will celebrate with thankful hearts, their ** diamond wedding,” which fow, indeed, hove over boheld this side tbo opening gates of the ” New Jerusalem.”

William May, Emmettsville, wan born in 1820. in Pennsylvania; came to Columbiana County, Ohio, in 1S33, to Coshocton, Ohio, in 1S38, to Union County, Ind.. in 1840. Ripley County. Ind., in 1342, to Wayne County, Ind.. in 1844, to Delaware County, Ind, in 1853. and to Greon Township. Randolph County, Ind.. in 1857. Ho has been twice married, the first time, in 1843. and the second time in 1848. He has hud eleven children, ten of whom aro now living. He is a farmer, a member of tho United Brethren.Church and a Republican.

Antony W. McKinney was horn in Pennsylvania. He came to Groen Township, Randolph County, in 1S37. He has had eleven children, eight still alive, and seven are married. His children reside in Randolph, Jay and Delaware Conotios and in Nebraska. His father was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, who died at Fairview. aged ninety years. Mr. McKinney also diud at Fairview, Ind., an old man. He was u farmer and a Democrat, and had been a soldier in the war of 1312. It is a noteworthy fact that wbon he arrived in Randolph Count}-, he had just 00 cents and no mora As poor as he was. his son, John W. McKinney, now owns some 1,500 acres of land and supports hundreds of cattle for market in the larger towns and more distant cities. The wealth that they possess has every cent bee’j acquired sinco that important day when the elder McKinney became a denizen of Randolph. Hia father must have felt an admiration for the daring soldier who captured Stony Point at midnight in the old Revolutionary war, since he named his son after the gallant hero, Anthony Wayne, ” Mad Anthony,” whom the Indian chief called the ” General who never slept,” who. by his valor and prowess, retrieved the shameful disasters and defeats of the past campaigns, nnd taught the haughty savages submission to the powor of the whites.

John B. McKinney, son of Antony W. McKinney. reside* across the Mississinewa River, south from Fairview. He owns 1,400 acres or more of land, and is n great stock dealer and raiser, owning hundreds of cattle. He has a wife and three children, and the finest residence in Oreon Township, and there aro few, if any, equal to it (outside the cities) in Randolph County. He is an energetic and successful business man. un active Democrat in politics nnd a prominent citizen.

James MoProud was born in Warren County, Ohio, in 181)1. came to Randolph County in 1827, and moved hero in 18*20. He married Hannah Roberta in Ohio before be was of age. They have had nine children, ad of whom became grown and wore married, and seven are living still. He has spent his life as a farmer, now owning 100 acres, but having been possessed atone period of a whole section. He is a Methodist, tho first Muthodist preaching in the township having taken place at his house. In politics, he was a Democrat, voting for ”Old Hickory.” Becoming afterward a Whig, in course of time he joined the Republican party, to which he still adheres. Though over eighty years old. he is still hale and sprightly and vigorous. He is fond of recounting the old-time exploits and advootures, of whicli he has experienced his full share. The ” circuit rider ” at the “tir3t preaching” was Goorgo Bowers, and his circuit” comprised a horseback journey through a forest and flood of 250 miles. Hia aged wife, tbo sharer of the hardships of hia pioneer life, died January 11, 1381, agod seventy.four years, four months and eloven days, of paralysis. Sho bad been a member of the Methodist Church more than sixty years, and married not quite aa long. Her family has consisted of nine children, six boys and threa girls, all >rrown. married and settlod in life, and seven living at the present time. Her funeral was attended by n large concourse of friends and neighbors, the services being conducted by Rev. John A. Moorman, of Farmland, Ind., and j her remains being Ibid in Hopewell Cemetery.

Israel Wirt was born in 1700. and settled in Green Township very early, entering laud in 1S30. and moving in 1337. He was one of the proprietors of the little town of Steubenville. which was laid out in lS3Qt but has been extinct for more than twenty yoars. He was a farmer and business man, keeping a storu also at Steubenville for several years. He owned a considerable body of land near that place, and built A comfortable reideuce there. He had a family of several children, and died at the age of eighty-four years, iu August. 1880, leaving to bis heirs a considerable fortune.

PHILIP DARGEK. farmer, P. 0 Fsirvicw. eras, born in Fayette County, Ohio, April ‘JR. 1815. Ilii father. Philip Bsrgar, Sr.. wu born in Montgomery County, Va.. and moved to Fayette County. Ohio, in 1804. Hia mother, whose maiden niiDi was Polly Shroyer, win B)m a native of Montgomery County, Va. Sbe did in Fayetia County, Ohio, to 181′.*. and her husband died about the year 13’.”-‘. Philip (larger. Sr., served In tht «»r of 1812. The subject of l hit sketch catoe to [Undolph County, Ind., at an early day, and en tared a trnct of government land, which he cleared and improved. On the 4th of f>ciol>er. 1838. he wu married to Elliabeih Strong, danghtir of Reuben Strong, of Delaware County, Ind. Iter father was bora in Massachusetts, and her mother, wboaa maiden oame waa Barbara Boots, wu born in Virginia. Mn. Burger died in Auguat. 1877. in her fifty-fifth year. She bore her hatband seven children, three of whom—Lusetia, Lewis and Napoleon B., now survive. John W., Henry C, Miriam and an Infant are deeeasad. Mr. Barter has 247 acres of Ane land In Sections 8 and 4, and is engaged at the occupation of farming. He is a member of the M. K Chnrch, and of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. In politics, he is a Republican.

SAMUKL CAY LOR, farmer. P. O. Euimciteville. m born io Rose County. Ohio, November 26, 1811. Hi* parents, Jacob and Catharine (Atcher) Caylor, were natives of Virginia, the former born December ‘2:>, 1777. and the latter April 0, 1782. They located in Fayette Oouoty, Ohio, in 1810, where they remained until death. Their parents came from Germany. The subject of this sketoh was married. January Id, 1834, io Anala Life, in Fayatie Count/. Ohio, and toon after removed to Delaware County. Ind. In 1837, he removed to Randolph County, locating upon a tract of Government land, which he had entered a short time previously, oonaieting of 120 acres. Shortly afterward he went to Koss County. Ohio, with an old mare and a mule colt, and sold them for $40. Adding $10 to this amount, he purchased an additional forty acres of land, and about a yrar later he purchased forty aores more with 840 received from bis father. His land was all heavily timbered, and wu cleared by his own labor. He continued to enlarge the boundaries of his farm until his possessions aggregated 1,800 acres. Of this amount, nearly 600 acres have been giv*n by him to various uembere of his family. lis had two children by the tirat wife, one of whom died In infancy, and the other, Christopher, in 1837. On the 4th of July, 1838, be married Elisabeth Bxtt*. a native of Fayetia County, Ohio. They are the parents of seven children—alary, Martin, Jacob, Martha. John, Melissa and Sarah.

SILAS 8. CLARK, farmer. P. 0. Farmland, waa born In the fort el Fort Wayne. Ind . March 2, 1830. Hia father, MaMon Clerk, waa burn In Randolph County, N. C in 171)6. His mother, whose maiden name was Margaret Cartwrtght, wu a native of Guillord County. N. C. 8ha was a second cousin of Rev. Peiar Cartwrigbt, the famous pioneer Meihodisi circuit preacher. Hie father. Mahlon Clark, located in Randolph County, Ind., in 1818, but soon want io Fort Wayne, where he embarked In trading with the Indiana. Several years later he returned to Randolph County, Ind. The subject of this sketch was married, September 1. 1863, to Emily J. Moore, a native of Randolph County. Ind. Her father, F.traos Moore, was born in Randolph County, N. C , and her mother, whose maiden name was Alley Middleton, was a native of the same county. Mr. Dark and wife are the parents of six children —Manha A., John Cm Km ma Z-, Sarah L.. James O. and Mary B., one of whom, Mary E . is deceased. During the late war, Mr. Clark waa a aoldiar in the Union army He enlisted in the Ninth Indiana Regiment on the 6th of October. 1S64, and served unlil the dose of the war. He was io the battles of Pulaski, Franklin and Columbia, Tana., after whieh he fell ill, and has never sinoe regained his former health. During the earlier years of hli life be was engaged at the shoemaker’s trade,but. after the war, adopted farming, which be has followed ever since. He has forty acres in Green Township. lis was appointed Justice of the Peace, and, after serving three yean, was elected for a term of four years. Io polliioa, be ie a RepubUcu. Himself and wife are member* of the Christian Church.

JOHN C. CLARK, firmer, P. 0 Farmland, was bora in Rudolph County, Ind.. in 1866. His rather, S. S- Clark, wu born within the old fort at Fort Wayne. Ind.. March 2. 1830. His mother, whose maiden name waa Emily J. Moore, was born in Randolph County, lod. His father served In the Ninth | Indiana Regiment United Slates Volunteers, during the war of the rebellion. On the Mb of May, 1880, Mr. Clark wu married to Miss Sarah B. Genii, whose parents were both natives of Rsndolph Count/, Ind. Mr. CWrk has GGjj acres of land, and is engaged In the pursuit of farming. He is a member of the Christian Chureb, and. in politics, is a Republican. His wife is e member of the United Brethren Church. Her father wu a member of the F.igluv-fourth Indiana Regiment, and was killed at the battle of Nashville io 1SW.*

17.RA CONN, minister, P. 0. Farmland, wu born in Preble County, Ohio. November 6, 1823. Uis fathsr, George Coon, wu bora in the Shenan

doah Valley, Va. The eubjeet of this sketch wu reared in bis native county, receiving a common school education. He wu married, in 1848. to 8ussm Gaines, who bore hiss ten children. Art of wboaa now survive—Willi»« £,, Wilson P., Lucy L.. Henderson W. and Asa. His second marriage took place in 1870, at whieh time he wu wedded to Martha J. Gaols. The children by this marriage are John C. Jossphine B. end Naomi A. In early life, Mr. Conn learned the shoe-maker’s trade, bat for the pass three yean nanbasa a minister of the Methodist Protestant Chureb. His father wu a soldier in the war of 1812, and his grandfather ia the Revolutionary war,

ALEXANDER CURRENT, fanner. P. O. Fairview, was bora In Monongalia County, Va., January 21, 1811. His fathsr, Eoooh, wu a nativs of Virginia, and died in Monongalia County, Va., April 18, 1887. Hie mother’s raaidei name was Mary Hoffman. She was also a native of Virginia, aod died in Monongalia County August 80, 1869. Alexander Current wu educated la the common schools of bis native county. He came to Randolph County. lod., I in 1840. and, in 1843, taught the first school in his school district. He wu f married, February 6, 18»6. to Zaisabato Joaec. daughter ef Benjamin and Kliinbelb (Bell} Jones, natives of Virginia. His first wife died, leaving three : children, and by the second marriage there were two—Mary B. and Martha i L. Mr. Current is a member of the M. K. Church, as to also bis wife. In politics, he ia a Republican.

JACOB DAl’GHh’RTY, farmer. P. 0. Fairview, wu born In Orecne County. Ohio. May 27, 183U. His parents, James D. and Jemima (Shirk, Dougherty, were both natives of Virginia. In 1861, they removed to Jay County, Ind., where they still reside. The subject of this sketch wu a member of the | Eighty-fourth Indiana Regiment,.and ponieipAled in the battles of Daltoo, | Bustard Roost, Pumpkin Vine Run. Loot Monntsin, snd ihs battles at aod [ around Atlanta. He was eifo in the engagements at Lovejoy Station and at Nashville under Gen. Thomas. He wu at the surrender of Fort Anderson, I and in tbe fight at Kingston, N. C. On the 10th of January, 1841, he wu ! married to Sunn C. Andrews, who died April 7, 18G9. Their daughter is now j the wife of John Bodkin, and resides at Farmland, ia this county. In 1870. Mr. Daugherty wu married to Suae ana Evens, his present companion. She is the daoghter of John aod Mary (Norris) Ettas, both natives of Monongalia County, Va,

JOSEPH C. DEV03S. farmer, P. 0. Fairview. wu horn in Highland County, Ohio. Hia father, David Devoss, was born in Roae County, Ohio, and his mother, whose maiden name wu Dorcas Cheney, was born in Highlaad County. Ohio. They oame to Randolph County, Ind., in 1864, and located ia j Oreea Township, where the father died in March, 1866. The subject of this I sketoh entered the Union army In 1864, and served nine months, laklag part, meanwhile, in the battles of Franklin and Subtitle, Teno. He wu married, October 23. 1860. to Julia A. Campbell, who was born April 20. 1840. She I bore him four children, vis.: David A.. James M., Daniel H. aad Cora A. James M. died December 1G. 1870: Daniel H. died. October 30, 1877 ; Mrs. be voce died Juns 1, I860. Oa the 4th of December, 1872, Mr. Uevou wu married, io Cynthia A. Read, daughter of Cyrus and Sarah H. C. Rend. They are the parents of two children—John L, and Cyrus R. Mr. Devoss snd wife are both members of the M. E. Church. He has served two terms u Trustee of

I his township, and is now serving uusessor. Hs is a member of tbe Mesooic fraternity and of the Patrou of Husbandry. He hu a fine farm of 127 acres

| la Sections 16 and 10. Mr. Dsvou is a member of the I. O. 0. F.

I CYNTHIA A. DILL, farmer, P. 0. Fairview, daughter or Martin aad

I Rhode (Strong) Boots, wu born in Greene County, Ohio, November 20. 1827. She oame to Randolph Ciuoty, Ind., with her husband io 1862, locating in Oreen Township. Her father died here, March 16, 1873, aged eev«siy-two years. On tbe 18th of February, 1846. Mlu Boots wu married to Solomon Dill, who died February 27, 1860. They were the parents of seven children. j four of whom ore now living, vis,: Martha J., George A., Lewis and David. Rhode K., Martin L. and Philip M. are deceased. Mr. Dill was always engaged io the pursuit of farming, and wu a man* who possessed the eon fide nee and esteem of all who knaw htm. Since his demise, the farm bu been con* ducted by Mrs. Dill and her Bobs. She is the owner of 1W) acres of fine land

1 In Section 2. Mn. Dili ii a member of the Oerman Reformed Church.

MINERVA EVANS, farmer. P. 0. Fairview, daoghter of Reuben and

I Barbara (Boots) Strong, wu born in Greene County, Ohio. September 3, 1824.

! Her father wu born in Massachusetts sod her mother in Virgin is. They came to Indiana in 1834, aad settled io Delaware County, where both died—the father In 1836 and the mother io 1862. In 1842, tbe subject of this sketch wu married to George W. Evans, who wu born in Ohio in 1817. aod died In Randolph County, Ind., in 1860. Their wedded life wu blessed by nine sons, sis of whom are now living, vis.: Jesse. Alfred, Levi M.. Charles. Napoleon B. and George W. William Henry enlisted for the six months’ service, but fell a victim to mseslu and disd in Tsnnessee. December 31, 1863, five months aHer his enlistment. Ht wu in his nineteenth year, and wu Second Lieutenant, In command of Company B, One Hundred and Eighteenth Indiana Volunteer Infantry. Fraacii M-, died in October, 1860; John R. died November 26, 1664. All the sons are farmers and identified with the Republican pony, and two of them are Put Grands In Fairview Lodge, No. 134,1. 0- O. F. They have a fine farm of 812 ecru, under a good state of cultivation.

GEORGE FORD, farmer. P. O. Farmland, wu horn In Green Township, Randolph County, Ind., io 1846. His father, John Ford, wu born March 18, 1803, lo the Sute of New York. His mother wu Betsey Johnson before marriage. In 1860, Mr. Ford wu married to Mies Lueinds Flood, a estiva of Montgomery County, Ohio, and daughter of John aod Sarah (Proof) Flood. Thoy are the parents of six children, four of whom era now living, vis.: Melissa J., Ida A., Mary L. and John C. Mr. Ford Is engaged in agricultural pursuits, and hu eighty acres of land in Section 19. His wife is s member of the Methodist Protestant Church.

JAMES H. FORD, fsrsser, P. 0. Farmland, wu born io Clinton County, Ohio, In 1844. Hie father, Robert, wu bora ia Pennsylvania, and his mother. Catherine t’Hobleti Ford, wu born in Clinton County. Ohio- During the Ute | war the rub)ed of ibis sketch served the Union cause as a member of the | Second Regiment Missouri Stats Militia. He surved three years, snd particl- i paled in ibe bailies io. which his regiment ires engaged, among ihem being the ‘ haitl— of Bloooaflold, Mo., and Nicer Wood Swamp. Hie father was in the | larai branch of the servioe. Mr. Ford and wife are the parent* of four children, vis. : Minnie B., Etna I.’., Clyde R. and Arthur J. He it a farmer by \ occupation and a Republican In polities. He has forty acre* hi Section 17, i Green Township, and forty acres in Missouri. Both himself and wife are | members of the Christian Church.

JOHN* FORD, farmer, P. 0. Farmland, wee born in the city of New York, March 1*1, 1803. His father. George ForJ, »m born in County Down, Ireland. His mother, before marriage Was Prudenoe Kearn. His father was once engaged in a rebellion against the British Government. On the 1st of February. 1820, the subject of ibis iketch was married to Elisabeth Johnson ; she was born In Hamilton County, Ohio, and her father, Cornelius Johnson, was born in New Jersey. Mr. Ford came to Randolph County, Ind., in 1827. and entered a tract of Government laud in Green Township, where he still resides. He entered his land In 18:12. and now owns 100 acres. Mr. Ford end wife are the parents of eleven children, five of whom are living, vis.: Margaret. Mary, George, U’ilion B. and Samuel II. He had one son who fell la defense of the Union, killed by ■■ sharp-shooters.” David Ford, an uncle of the subject of ibis sketch, came in the United .States about I8u0 or 1810. He never married, but made his home with a family in Rockbridge County. Vo , until I about the year 1821. It was known by his relatives that be had a large | amount of geld ia his possession, but after bis death it could never be f*tun<l | or accounted for. J

THOMAS GREEN, farmer, I’. 0. Rldgcville, was bom in Casey County, | Ky.. in 1820. His parents were both natives of that oouniy. Mr. Green has I pasted ibe greater portion of his life in the township in which he now resides, having located hereabout forty-seven years ago. He waa married in 1853, to Minerva McCracken. a native of Lick ins: County, Ohio, born in JfrPS. They are the parents of eight children, of whom four are now living, e|».: William H-. Frances W., Emily V. K. and Mary R. Mr. Green la engaged ai the pursuit of farming. He has 194 acres of fine land in Green Township. Section 18. He is a member of Ibe M. P. (.’burch. as is also bis wife. In politics, he is a Democrat. He had four brothers in the Union Army; Jonathan Was a member of :he Eighty-fourth Indiana Regiment: Granville was in theThiriyslxih Indiana Regiment-, but was discharged on account of disability. Jamee collated for three years, hut died within sis months after entering the ssrvioe. Joshua entered the Eighty-fourth Indiana Krgiment in 1854, and served until the close of the war.

AARON HARRIS, farmer. P. 0. Falrview, was born April 15, 1825, neer Ozfonl, Ind. His parents. SAmuel aod Mary Harris, were natives of Virginia. They removed to Montgomery County, Ohio, and located near Dayton, in 1827. There the subject of this sketch received his education. In 1848, be *oa married to Miaa Elizaheth Bond, and in 1855, came to Handolpb County, locating upon a tract of heavily limbered laud, tits farm contains 240 acre!*, of which area 105 acres have been cleared by himself. His wedded life baa been blessed hy nine children, seven of whom now survive, viz.: William P.. Hiram J.. James P., Eveline. John VT., Henry F. and Ella J. Mr. Harris is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and is highly esteemed as a food citizen. For nveral years after locating In this county, ho worked at the carpenter’s trade, and erected many of the first frame barns in this locality.

WILLIAM H. HARRISON, Esu>. farmer, P 0. Farmland, was born September 20, 1446, in Greene County, Ohio). His father, Jesse Harrison, was horn in Ohio. February 18, ItJOO. His mother, whose maiden uime was Elizabeth J Flood, was born in Greene County, Ohio, in October. 1808. They came to Ran- j dolph County, Ind . in 1847. The father died September 20,1870. The mother ; is still living at Farmland, in this county. On the I4lh of December, 180S, , the subject of this sketch enlisted in the Nineteenth Indiana Volunteer Kegi- ] meat for three years, or during the war. He participated in the ban lee of the 1 Wilderness. Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, PeUraburgsnd Five Forks, and through 1 to Apoomaitos. He was married, April 10, 1809, to Martha A. Mc*’arnish. . They have two children living, Ira 0. aod Lauretta. Mr. Harrison is now I serving as Justice of the Peace. He is a Hepubllcan in politics, aod both himself and wife are members of the Christian Church.

t’HRISflAN LIFE, fanner. P. 0. Pairriew, was born in Lewis County, j Vs., January 8. 1831. He is the son of John and Julia A. Life, the former a { native of Virginia, and the latter of Germany. He came to Handolph County with his parents in 1837, and grew up amid tiie hardships of pioneer life, lie was married, ia 1857. lo Misa Polly A. Tinkle, a native of lieury (bounty, Ind., anil daughter of Jacob Tinkle, now a resident of Jay County, Ind. They have six children, viz.: Emetine, John, Jacob. Lewis. Julia E. and William B. Mr. Life is engaged la farming and stock-raising, aod owns 127 acres of good land. Both himself and wife are members of Ibe United Brethren Church.

Jt»SF,PH II. LORD, farmer, P. 0. Fair view, was born In Connecticut March 2it, 1821. His parents. Horace and Sarah (Bucklsnd) Lord, were both natives of Connecticut, and both died at W losor, in that Stale. The subject of this sketch lived within twelve miles of Hartford until twenty years old. He then lived in Greene County, Ohio, for six years, after which he came to Randolph County, Ind.. and located in Greene Township. He was married, December JO, 1847, lo Ellen Md,1ure, laughter of Samuel end Barbara (Fervor) McClurv. Her father was horn in Augusta County, Vo., In 1780, and died in Randolph County. Ind., about 1865. Her mother waa horn io L’enn«ylvania in 1782. and died in Randolph County, lod.. December 30. 1862. Mr.-Lord and wife have six children, els.: Charles K.. James II., Lydia A., Frank B., Martin M. and Sarah F. Horace SL. died October 24. 1802. Mr. Lord Is engaged in agricultural pursuits, having ICO acres of Ane land in Section 21. He is a Kepublicsa, end a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.

AMOS LUDWICK «u born in Stony Creek Township, Randolph Co.. Ind.. I October 15, 1814. His father. George Ludwick. was born in Maryland. Ilia mother’s maiden name was Sarah C. Bowers. She died in 1S42. and his father died about sit years later, Mr. Ludwick received a good common school edu- ! cation, and grew up a farmer, which occupation he has ever since followed. He was married, March 7. 1850, to Mary fc. McN’ocs. They are the parents of eight children, throe of whom are deceased : Flora E.. Lindsey L., McNoos -B.. j Charles E. aod Myrtle P., ars now living. Mr. Ludwick has 106 acres of good land In Section 6. He Is a Republican in polities, and both himself and wife are members of the Christian Church. Mrs. Ludwick is the daughter of An- j drew and Jane (McEnlyre) McNees. the former probably a native of Tennessee, and the latter of Ohio. She had three brothers in the Union army during the late war—Harvey A., was in the Nineteenth Regiment Indiana Volunteer lo- 1 fantry i three years’ service), but was finally discharged on accouniof disability. ■ S. A., was in the same regiment. He died from the effects of wounds received at the battle of Gainesville, Va. Marshall M., was in the Eighty-fourth Regi- j men I. three years’ service, and was wounded on the skirmish line. He coo- I tinued in the service until the close of the war. Andrew McNees. the father of Mrs. Ludwick. was born January 21, 1818, and Jane McNees mother of Mrs. L., was horn November 22, 1811.

JOHN McCAMISII. farmer. P. 0. Hidgeville, was born August 14. 1838. His father, William MoCaniish. was a native of Tennessee, and his mother, whose maiden name was Margaret Gray, was a native of Virginia. They came lo Randolph County. Ind.. about the year 1SS5. His grandfather was in the war of 1812. Mr. Met’atnmish has eighty acres of fine land in Greens Township, and is engaged in agricultural pursuits, lie was married, in 185$. to Hannah Gantz. Her fnthcr was horn in Germany, and ber mother in New Jcrsoy. Mr. McCamiah and wife are the parents of two children—William M. and Adello F. Mr. and Mrs. Mcfamish are members of the M. P Church, and Mr. McC-tmish is a Republican in politics.

JESSE B. McKINNEY. stock-raiser. P. 0. Falrview, was horn lo Clarke County. Ohio. January 3, 1822. Ilia father, Anthony W. McKinnvy, was born io Newport, Ky.. and his mother, Elizabeth (Britten) McKinner, was born in Ohio. In 1837, his father came lo Randolph ‘ ouoty, locating in Green Township. He was a soldier in the war of 1-12. The grandfather of J. B. McKieney was a soldier in the Revolution, and fought at Bunker Hill and Braadywine. After the war, he settled In Kentucky, and adopted the vocation of farming, lie owned and operated a ferry-boat across the Ohio River, and it is said bo assisted in ”raising” the Jhral log cabin in Cincinnati. He died in Green Township, Randolph Co., Ind., in [888. Jesse B. McKinney was reared amid the scenes of pioneer life, and received his education in a rude log school house • in this township. He was married. August 10, 1848. to KM is bet fa A. Manor. Her father was horn in Berkeley County,Va., and her mother, Elizabeth (Suvevs) McKinney. was born near Philadelphia, Peon. Her father settled in Jay Co., Ind.. in 1835. Mr. McKinney and wife have three children now living, viz.: j Mary C, Emma ‘A. V. and Ella E. Elizabeth Jane died in 1S54. During early life, Mr. MoKinney followed theoccu|utlion of farming, then engaged in milling pursuits for live years, and for six years was in mercantile life. He has since been extensively engaged in farming and stock-raising, having 1.500 a-*res of fine land in Green Township, and a palatial home. He is enterprising and public-spirited, as well as liberal, and is universally esteemed.

JAMES G. McPKOUD, farmer. P. 0. Farmland, wss born April 30, 1803, In Rockingham County, Vs.. and removed to Ross County. Ohio, when but six years old. He removed to Fayette County, Ohio, in 18S7. and from thereto Randolph County, lad., where he has ever since resided. His father, John, was born and reared in Burlington County, X. J. He removed to Virginia, and married Nancy Read, a native of Delaware. She died io Roes County. Ohio, in 1S16. The subject of this sketch married Hannah 0. Roberts, in 1827. She was born in Lycoming County, Peon., September 1, 1800. Her father, John Roberts, was born In Salem County, N- J-, in 1760. The subject of this sketch received a common school education in Ross County, Ohio. He learned the blacksmith’s trade, but has always been engaged in farming. Ha bas 100 acres of land in Sections 14 and 23. Both himself and wife are members of j iho M. E. church. They have seven children living, viz.: Josiab R., Lewis VY., Mary M . Samuel T., Constant B., James 0. and Sarah M. John W., died October 10. 1878; Esther R died February 10. 18*34.

MILTON MEKANDA. farmer. P. 0. Farmland, was bom in Clark Couaty. Ohio, December 22, 1840. His father, Robert L. Meranda, waa bora in Bourbon County. Ky., October t», 18trt>, but was reared aod educated in Clark County, Obio. Ills mother’s maiden name was Mercer C. Davis. She was burn oear Yellow Springs. Ohio, in 1814. Both came to Randolph County, Ind., :n 1840, locating in Franklin Township, where they remained until death. Milton, the subject of this biography, enlisted in the Fifty-fifth Indiana Regi- ! mem for the three months* service early in the late wer. and re-eulisted ta Company. II. One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Regiment, for one year. He participated in the battles at Nashville, Wise’s Ford snd elsewhere. He was ‘ married, on the 1st of October. 1305, to Matilda A. Faust, daughter of Christian Faust, who was born io Knox County, Tenn. Mr. Meranda and wife are the parents of six children, vis., William F., Rosenna, James I.. Lillian, Peter L. j snd Dora) to. He was engaged in funning during the greater part of his life, but for the past twelve years he tins been engaged in milling pursuits, having an interest in a good saw.mill at Shed»ilie. In politics, he is a Democrat. Both himself and wife are members of the Christian Church.

Ll’l’flER L. MOORMAN, farmer. P. 0. Hidgeville, woe born March 14, 1844. In White River Township, Handolph Co., Intl., and has been a resident of this county ever sioce. His father, John A. Moorman, was born in North Carolina. His mother’s maiden name was Nancy Histt. At the outbreak of the rebellion in 18*11, the subject of this sketch iiben a mere boy) enlisted in Company C. Nineteenth Indiana Volunteer Infantry. He enlisted on the 6th of July, 1661, for three year’, but soon nfter entering the field his health failed, and he was honorably discharged on the 10th of the tollowiog Decern

‘ ber. Regaining his health, to the spring of 1862 he assisted in recruiting a company for the Fifty-fifth Indiana Regiment, and woe mustered la u First

| Duty Sergeant of thai company, which wet known M Company F. He was tendered a Lieutenancy in the Fifty-fourth Regiment, bat the preciriout elaie of bis health would not permit him to accept the office. On the 10th of November, 180$. he was married to Amanda McCracken. Her father, Robert McCracken, wai born in Fayette County. Penn., and her mother, Sarah High, ambotbare. wai barn in Muskingum County, Ohio. They came to Stony Creek 1 To wash ip, Randolph Co.. lad., in 1337. and removed to Green Township in 1857. Her father died in this townabip on (he 15th of June, 1872, and in the sixty- j

i second year of his age, and the mother died in her sixty-third year. By the ! first marriage, Mr. Moorman and wife were the parent* of four children, twoof whom are now living, vis.: Robert. R. and Jessie. James A. and an infant , are deceased. Mrs. Moorman died March 9. 1874. On the 27lh of March, 1875, Mr, Moorman was married to Elizabeth McCracken, sister of his first wife. They have one child—Clyde A. Mr. Moorman was elected Justice of ; the Peace, and Is now nerving his second term as Trustee of Groan Township. Mr. Moorman in a member of the M. P. Church, and his wife Is a member of the C. U. Church.

CLARK REED is a cilixeo of Oreea Township, and is an enterprising farmer. He Wm always very zealous for the promotion of public schools in hit : school district, nnd for the education of his children. He wu born in Greene | County, Ohio, October 17, 182H, and resided there till February, 1857. when | he moved to this county. He wts educated in the public schools of the city of ■• Oldtown,” in Greene County, Ohio. This was originally an old Indian j town. The public schools had in those days already advanced considerably. | Mr. Clark Reed was a aon of Abner Reed, and hi* mother’s maiden name was ‘ Cynthia Adams. Mr. Abner Reed was born in .Northbridgs, Worcester Co., I Mass.. September II, 17SH. His father was a soldier of the Revolution, and ! bis mother was a daughter of Capt. John Hrown. a distinguished soldier of the English and French war, and for many years a member uf the General Court of Massachusetts, and who, with nine sons, fought for the new Union in Rerolu* lion. The elder Mr. Reed came West to Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1815. and, in company with his brother Ezra, his wife’s brother ft mien Adams, and Thomas Watson, engaged to the cloak business. In about one year afterward, he returned lo his native State, and on the 8th day of May, 1816. ha married Cynthia Adams at Worcester, Mass. In two weeks afterward, the young couple started to Greene County, Ohio. and. after being eis weeks on the road, arrived there In June The three former par intra then bought a tract of land together, which afterward became the sole property of Mr. Abner Reed, where he resided till he died. Mr. (lark Reed was married, October 24, 1802, lo Sarah A. Drotherton. She was a daughter of John Rruthcrton, of Delaware County. Ind. Five years after this marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Kced emigrated West, and located in Green Township. Randolph County, where they have resided ever since. They nave cleared and made the farm they now occupy, and are familiar wiih pioneer life. This un’mo has been honored with live accessions, fit. : John. Walter, Abner, Adolphus. Emma and Mtttie. Adolphus died .September 10. 1861; John was married, September 17, 187!>, to Lydia Lord, daughter of J. II. Lord. They have three cbildreo. namely, Orvil. Zulu and Clark. Abner was married. October 9, 187*.’. to Sarah Holly. They have one child. The younger Mr. Reeds are all farmers. They have the attributes I of ihe forefathers’ energy and enterprise. Integrity and prue|»eriiy.

CVKCS A. KEKD. This gentleman was the descendant of an old New England family. His father, Abner Reed, was born in Massachusetts in 1784, and afterward reI moved to Greene County, Ohio, where Abner Reed wai united in rarriage | with M:s? Cynthia Adams, who was also a native of Massachusetts, and came I with her parents to Greene Couoty, when seven years old. Six children were | the fruits of this union, of whom Cyrus, the subject of this sketch, was fourth. ! lie was born on the 24th of April, 1824. in Greene County. Ohio, where he ; grew to manhikod. working on bit father’s farm and acquiring proficiency in | :ne science of farming, which, in later years, he adopted as his vocation, I atuHssiog thereby a comfortable fortune. On the 20th of September, 1800, be was united in marriage with Mien Sarah II. C. Lawrence, and very soon afteru a-‘i, with his young wife, left home and friends to locate in the wilderness of j Indiana, and bear his part in the development of Randolph County.

He iocatcd upon a tract of 420 acres of land tbst had been previously purchased of the Government by his father. Upon this tract no improvements tabled ; it was covered with a heavy growth of limber, and be taw before him years of hard work. Out he was not a man to cjuail before such a prospect. He was struggling for a home, and the interest of his loved ones, I and Ills desire to provide well for theui nerved his arm and animated him in j ali his protracted struggle with the forest and the hardships incident to pioneer | life. Trie future years brought a rich reward for bis industry, anil a fine farm I was developed by him from the forest in which he first settled, and a beautl- | fnl home took the place of Ihe lug cabin, in which he and his devoted wife i entered upon their new life in the wilderness. During their straggle in the i Sorest, and while (heir fortunes were changing little by little for the better. I their lin e home was made more cheerful and happy by the pretence of cull- i dren, who came to blest their wedded life. Mary E, was the eldest, theneame i Cynthia A.. Alice J.. Horace G.. Emma F-. Annie E. and William L, respectively. ; Mr. Reed acquired a good common-school education in youth, and builded i ! upon this by observation and experience in later years, gaining A good store of i < general information. Hi* success as a farmer is largely due lo Ihe enlhusinim I j which be threw into his work, and the escliitlvcncss with which he confined l | his attention to that pursuit, always avoiding speculation and uncertain enter- j prises. In his associations with his fellow-men, lie was frank, sincere and manly; always actuated by a high sense of honor and right, and loo noble Io i ! take a mean advantage of them under any circumstances. He built up a repu- j

uuion for honesty and Integrity that was never assailed, and found his way into the hearts and affection* of all with whom he had dealings. On the Slsl of March, 1879, he died at the home he had made in the woods—Ihe home that t still bears so many evidences of his enterprise and taste. His death was an I irreparable loss lo his loving family, and a blow to the community io which he resided. He wai a public-spirited man, and took an active part in the public . improvements of his township and the county at large. He was prominent as ! an Odd Fellow, and had filled all the offices of the subordinate lodge, and at j the time of his demise wu District Deputy Grand Patriarch of ths Encamp- | menu In an obituary notice published by his brethren In the lodge, one who knew him sold: •’ As a husband and father few, if any, have ever been more | kind and affectionate. He wee truly an example of an amiable and confiding, mild and gentle disposition toward his family and friends, of whom he had j many.” Mr. Reed woe a consistent member of the Melhoditt Episcopal Chureh, of which his family are alto members.

The homeetead is occupied by his wife, an estimable lady, together with her children, Emma and ber husband, and Annie E. and William L. Mrs. Reed Is the daughter of John B. Lawrence, who was born in the State of Sew York, in 1701, and married Amelia Bickers, who was born in 1800. In the State of Maryland. They were married on the 9th of February, 181C, in Greene County. Ohio. They had a family of eleven children, five of whom arc now lining. Sarah H. C. grew to maturity in Greene County, and at the age of iw*niyfour years was married to Mr. Reed To a common-school education she odds lite accomplishments of a bright intellect, and the virtues of a noble Chris- ! tian lady, and Is a favorite with all who know ber. Of their children only Annie and William now remain unmarried. Mary E.. the eldest daughter, b deceased ; Cynthia is married to J. C. Derosa: Alice J. to William D. Campbell ; Horace G. to Klita J. Wool perl, and Emma T. to T. J. Learell. ;

GEORGE SITES, farmer. P. O. Fair view, was born in Hardy County, Va., December 10. 1804. lit it the ion of Frederick and Mary (Bargdoll) Sites, both natives of Virginia. Hit grandfather, Nicodemus Bsrgdoll, served in the Revolutionary war. Mr. Sites settled in Greene County, Ohio, in 1&<2, and came to Randolph County, Ind., in I&K7. locating in Green Township. He was married. June 5, l&>2, to Susanna Keueman, a native of Virginia. Tbey have had eleven children, sis of whom are now living, vix. : Annie M. E,, Mary S , Rhode, Lydia A., 8ylveeter D. and Isaee A. Mrs. Sites is the daughter of Jacob and Annie M. KcUemaa. Mr. Sitee Is a successful farmer, and 1 ha,* 240 acres of fine Land in Section 15, One of bis tons Is a minister, and all his family ore members of the German Reformed Church.

A£Al’H B. WEBB, was born in Greene County, Ohio. November 4, 1811. His father was Samuel Barrack Webb. He was born in one of the Eastern Colonies In 1758, and died in Ohio, la 184}, at the sdvenced age of eightyteven years. His mother’s maiden name was Mary Bull. She was born in 1775, nnd died in 1847. at the age of seventy-two years. His father was born during the French and Indian war, while the French tn l English nations were contending in a fierce struggle for supremacy upon the Western Continent, and there is a t radii ion to the effect that the father of Samuel B. Webb, or the great-grandfather of Ihe present generation of Webbs, served in that war. Samuel B. Webb left his home before he was seventeen years old to enter the Revolutionary army. He served through the war. and received an hooorable discharge He look part in some of the principal laUriee of the Revolution; participated In the tiege of Vnrktown, and witnessed the surrender of Cornwallit. He served again In the war of 1812. He belonged to the Army of the Center, and was with Gen. Pike, at Toronto, when the British uiagaxine exploded, resulting In the d#ath of that brave officer. He was at the storming of Fort George, and accompanied the army on Its second invasion of Canada. Al the close of the war he was honorably discharged. Asaph B. Webb was reared in his native county in Ohio. He lecetved a good education, mainly by his own unaided exertions, and by the light of the hickory hark torch. Many ■ a night did he study until near midnight, lying fiat upon his back, with bis head toward the Are, holding his slate and aritbmetio so the torch-light could fall upon them, and ihicldlog his head from ihe heat of the fire by a board. J Thus did he become one of (he best mathematicians of the common schools. He removed to Jay County, Ind.. in 184V. and to Emetcliaville, Randolph County, in 1RM. He was a prominent country school teacher until near the meridian of lift, and was also engaged 1st mercantile and agriculture! pursuits. He served three terms as Justice of the Peace, and one term as Trustee of Green Township. He married his first wife, Margaret Rook. August 20. IfcC Her parents were Samuel and Eleanor Rook. By the first marriage,’ Mr. Webb and wife had seven children—three sons and four daughters. Mary Eleanor was born Mav 2<>, !S:t8. She married William Williamson, and now resides at Cheater, Wayne Co.. Ind. Samuel Harrison was” bom February 28.1840. In 18ftI, he enlisted io Company G, Eighth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, three months’ service, but before hit jerm had expired he became a veteran byre-enlisting tn the three yean’ aervlce. While In the three months service, he took part in the battle of Rich Mountain and minor engagements. He was afterward with Gen. Curtis during bis campaign tn Missouri and Arkansas, and was* wounded al the bailie of Pea Ridge. Ark. He was with Ger.. Gram during bis Mississippi campaign, and participated in the battle and siege of Jackson, the battles of Port Gibson. Champion Hills and Black River Bridge, and the tiege of Vicksburg. At Vicksburg he distinguished himself in the terrible assault made upon the fortifications. At one time he seized the old flag when it was falling from Ihe nerveless grasp of its third hearer, end carried it at the head of ths column to the very walls of the fort. He was with Gen. Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley, during the campaign that resulted in ihe disorganization of Early’s army. But he sacrificed his life on his country’s altar in Ihe final struggle a! Cedar Creek. He lived long enough lo know that ths victory had been gained by the Union arms He died October 22, 1804, aged twenty-four years seven months and twenty-four days. Thomas J. was bora June a, 1843. In 1802, he enlisted in the Sixty-ninth Indiana Infantry, tod fell In his first battle, Richmond, Ky., August 29, 11*02, aged nineteen years two

How Many Ancestors do We Have

“How Many Ancestors do We Have?” by Dr. Terrence M. Punch, CM, FIGRS

Until very recent times, it took two to tango. Barring miracles or divine intervention every human being was the result of sexual activity between a man and a woman. Dolly the sheep and other clones were science fiction notions, futuristic fantasies, or they were before this generation. I suppose a hair-splitter who considers that il faut faire des précisions would argue that the first humanoids resulted from the mating of some sort of ape-like creatures. But for most of us ordinary folk, the traditional method of procreation served thousands of years of ancestors well enough to get or beget us here.

With that in mind, anyone tracing his or her ancestry will start with two parents, four grandparents, generally eight great-grandparents. We would double the number of our ancestors with each generation, so we’d go 2-4-8-16-32-64-128-256-512, etc., until twenty generations back you’d count 1,048,576 forebears. If you allow an average of 30 years per generation, then 600 years ago, you would theoretically be able to claim that many people born circa 1400 as being your ancestors. If you took a generation to be 25 years rather than 30, you’d get that number a century sooner, about 1492, the time Columbus reached the Americas. Need I add that, if you followed that track mathematically, you should have had 65,108,864 ancestors born in the generation of 1300.

What’s wrong with this picture? Let’s assume for the sake of argument that historical demographers are correct in their estimates of early populations. Colin McEvedy & Richard Jones, in their Atlas of World Population History (1978), calculate that there were 350,000,000 people alive in the entire world in the year 1400. The number collapses further when you realize that figure includes everyone then alive, regardless of which generation they belonged to. Since there would be parents and children and some grandchildren, then even the most generous estimate would have to cut that number by about sixty percent, let’s say that the generation of 1400, worldwide, computes out to somewhere between 125 and 135 million souls. And here you are with 65,000,000 ancestors born in that generation. Quite a bit wrong with that picture, I’d say.

Perhaps your family all came from Ireland, with its estimated one million living souls in the year 1500, meaning that about 330-340,000 people were born in that generation in Erin. But hold on, you’ve got three times that many ancestors belonging to that group. It can’t be done, can it? Perhaps your family wasn’t all Irish after all, or perhaps people were marrying relatives?

Here we come to the concept of implex or, if you prefer, pedigree collapse. As we work backwards in time through several generations in all our family lines, we will, sooner or later, discover that the same person or couple appears twice or even more often. Each time that happens, the number of different ancestors we have is diminished. This is not a sign of incest, and when such a discovery is made, you needn’t fear that your children will be driveling idiots.

In some cultures, cousins were obliged or at least encouraged to marry in order to keep wealth and property within the family or social class. A lord might have a child by a commoner, but he was expected to marry his social peers and produce legitimate heirs. In Europe until recently, the practice was for members of royal families to marry inside the ranks of families considered suitable matches. Failure to do so resulted in becoming disqualified from succeeding to the throne. The outstanding example of that was the exclusion of the three children of Archduke Franz Ferdinand from the succession in Austria-Hungary before World War One. Their mother was a countess, but she wasn’t royalty, so the children of the marriage were nobility but not imperial and royal highnesses.

Genealogists will learn that they have examples of implex, or pedigree collapse, in their own family trees. It is normal, and mathematically guaranteed to have occurred not once, but many times, over the past several centuries, and as a rule is nothing to be concerned about. If one case of intermarriage occurred six generations back, that is, about 200 years ago, then all the ancestors of that repeated couple will be the same, reducing the number of possible ancestors you have accordingly. One demographer has calculated that would give you 123,554 ancestors in 1500 instead of 1,048,576. But it is more than likely that in the five centuries between then and now, implex will have taken place several times in various parts of your family tree. Once you factor in social class, religion, geographic location and so forth, you will discover that you have considerably fewer than the theoretical million or so great-greats than you may have expected. It would surprise most students of population history to find anyone with more than several thousand ancestors born in the generation of 1500. A number between four and six thousand would be far more realistic, assuming that your ancestors all came from the same country.

Again, consider how difficult travel was before the age of steam power, and you can see that most of our ancestors had to marry from within a fairly circumscribed geographical area. Add in the fact that, apart from those engaged in mercantile trade or who were nobility, most people were born, lived, and died inside a very limited area. Engagement in war took some men far afield, and the devastation of war caused refugees to leave familiar places. Yet, given the constraints of class and economics, the selection of possible mates was usually quite limited. Villagers tended to marry within the village or inside the bounds of two or three neighboring parishes. The chances of marrying a second, third or fourth cousin were not just likely, but probable. Clergy of all denominations kept an eye on the degree of consanguinity (relationship by blood) between prospective married couples, and, all in all, the resultant progeny were normal and healthy.

The point of discussing implex, or pedigree collapse, is to point out that we may indeed be descended from kings and peasants, but not from as many different ones as simple binary calculation would lead us to believe. If you find that two of your great-great-great-great-grandparents turn up twice in the family tree, don’t fret; it’s to be expected and is perfectly all right.

Terminology, Meanings and Descriptions of Illnesses

Terminology, Meanings and Descriptions of Genealogical Illnesses

  • Ablepsy – Blindness
  • Ague – Malarial fever
  • American plague – Yellow fever
  • Anasarca – Generalized massive edema
  • Aphonia – Laryngitis
  • Aphtha – Infant disease “thrush”
  • Apoplexy – Paralysis due to stroke
  • Asphicsia – Cyanotic and lack of oxygen
  • Asphycsia – Cyanotic and lack of oxygen
  • Atrophy – Wasting away or diminishing in size
  • Bad blood – Syphilis
  • Bilious fever – Typhoid, malaria, hepatitis or elevated temperature and bile emesis
  • Biliousness – Jaundice associated with liver disease
  • Black plague – Bubonic plague
  • Black fever – Acute infection with high temperature and dark red skin lesions and high mortality rate
  • Black pox – Black small pox
  • Black vomit – Vomiting old black blood due to ulcers or yellow fever
  • Blackwater fever – Dark urine associated with high temperature
  • Bladder in throat – Diphtheria (seen on death certificates)
  • Blood poisoning – Bacterial infection; septicemia
  • Bloody flux – Bloody stools
  • Bloody sweat – Sweating sickness
  • Bone shave – Sciatica
  • Brain fever – Meningitis
  • Breakbone – Dengue fever
  • Bright’s disease – Chronic disease of kidneys
  • Bronze John – Yellow fever
  • Bule – Boil, tumor or swelling
  • Cachexy – Malnutrition
  • Cacogastric – Upset stomach
  • Cacospysy – Irregular pulse
  • Caduceus – Subject to falling sickness or epilepsy
  • Camp fever – Typhus; aka camp diarrhea
  • Canine madness – Rabies; hydrophobia
  • Canker – Ulceration of mouth or lips; or herpes simplex
  • Catalepsy – Seizures/trances
  • Catarrhal – Nose and throat discharge from cold or allergy
  • Cerebritis – Inflammation of cerebrum; or lead poisoning
  • Chilblain – Swelling of extremities caused by exposure to cold
  • Child bed fever – Infection following birth of a child
  • Chin cough – Whooping cough
  • Chlorosis – Iron deficiency anemia
  • Cholera – Acute, severe, contagious diarrhea with intestinal lining sloughing
  • Cholera morbus – Characterized by nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, elevated temperature, etc.; could also be appendicitis
  • Cholecystitus – Inflammation of the gall bladder
  • Cholelithiasis – Gall stones
  • Chorea – Disease characterized by convulsions, contortions and dancing
  • Cold plague – Ague which is characterized by chills
  • Colic – Abdominal pain and cramping
  • Congestive chills – Malaria
  • Consumption – Tuberculosis
  • Congestion – Any collection of fluid in an organ, like the lungs
  • Congestive chills – Malaria with diarrhea
  • Congestive fever – Malaria
  • Corruption – Infection
  • Coryza – A cold
  • Costiveness – Constipation
  • Cramp colic – Appendicitis
  • Crop sickness – Overextended stomach
  • Croup – Laryngitis, diphtheria or strep throat
  • Cyanosis – Dark skin color from lack of oxygen in blood
  • Cynanche – Diseases of throat
  • Cystitis – Inflammation of the bladder
  • Day fever – Fever lasting one day; sweating sickness
  • Debility – Lack of movement or staying in bed
  • Decrepitude – Feebleness due to old age
  • Delirium tremens – Hallucinations due to alcoholism
  • Dengue – Infectious fever endemic to East Africa
  • Dentition – Cutting of teeth
  • Deplumation – Tumor of the eyelids which causes hair loss
  • Diary fever – A fever that lasts more than one day
  • Diptheria – Contagious disease of the throat
  • Distemper – Usually animal disease with malaise, discharge from nose and throat and anorexia
  • Dock fever – Yellow fever
  • Dropsy – Edema (swelling), often caused by kidney or heart disease
  • Dropsy of the brain – Encephalitis
  • Dry bellyache – Lead poisoning
  • Dyscrasy – An abnormal body condition
  • Dysentery – Inflammation of the colon with frequent passage of mucous and blood
  • Dysorexy – Reduced appetite
  • Dyspepsia – Indigestion and heartburn; heart attack symptoms
  • Eclampsy – Symptoms fo epilepsy; convulsions during labor
  • Ecstasy – A form of catalepsy characterized by loss of reason
  • Edema – Nephrosis; swelling of tissues
  • Edema of lungs – Congestive heart failure; a form of dropsy
  • Eel thing – Erysipelas
  • Elephantiasis – A form of leprosy
  • Encephalitis – Swelling of the brain; aka sleeping sickness
  • Enteric fever – Typhoid fever
  • Enteritis – Inflammation of the bowels
  • Enterocolitis – Inflammation of the intestines
  • Epitaxis – Nose bleed
  • Erysipelas – Contagious skin disease due to Streptococci with vesiculas and bulbous lesions
  • Extravasted blood – Rupture of a blood vessel
  • Falling sickness – Epilepsy
  • Fatty liver – Cirrhosis of liver
  • Fits – Sudden attack or seizure of muscle activity
  • Flux – An excessive flow or discharge of fluid like hemorrhage or diarrhea
  • Flux of humour – Circulation
  • Gathering – A collection of pus
  • Glandular fever – Mononucleosis
  • Great pox – Syphilis
  • Green fever – Anemia
  • Grippe/grip – Influenza-like symptoms
  • Grocer’s itch – Skin disease cause by mites in sugar or flour
  • Heart sickness – Condition caused by loss of salt from body
  • Heat stroke – Body temperature elevates because of surrounding environment temperature and body does not perspire to reduce temperature
  • Hectical complaint – Recurrent fever
  • Hematemesis – Vomiting blood
  • Hematuria – Bloody urine
  • Hemiplegy – Paralysis of one side of the body
  • Hip gout – Osteomylitis
  • Horrors – Delirium tremers
  • Hydrocephalus – – Enlarged head; water on the brain
  • Hydropericardium – Heart dropsy
  • Hydrophobia – Rabies
  • Hydrothroax – Dropsy in chest
  • Hypertrophic – Enlargement of an organ, like the heart
  • Impetigo – Contagious skin disease characterized by pustules
  • Inanition – Physical condition resulting from lack of food
  • Infantile paralysis – Polio
  • Intestinal colic – Abdominal pain due to improper diet
  • Jail fever – Typhus
  • Jaundice – Condition cause by blockage of intestines
  • King’s evil – Tuberculosis of neck and lymph glands
  • Kruchhusten – Whooping cough
  • Lagrippe – Influenza
  • Lockjaw – Tetanus or infectious disease affecting the muscles of the neck and jaw; untreated, it is fatal in eight (8) days
  • Long sickness – Tuberculosis
  • Lues disease – Syphilis
  • Lues venera – Venereal disease
  • Lumbago – Back pain
  • Lung fever – Pneumonia
  • Lung sickness – Tuberculosis
  • Lying in – Time of delivery of an infant
  • Malignant sore throat – Diphtheria
  • Mania – Insanity
  • Marasmus – Progressive wasting away of the body, like malnutrition
  • Membranous croup – Diphtheria
  • Meningitis – Inflations of brain or spinal cord
  • Metritis – Inflammation of uterus or purulent vaginal discharge
  • Miasma – Poisonous vapors thought to infect the air
  • Milk fever – Disease from drinking contaminated milk, like undulant fever or brucellosis
  • Milk leg – Post partum thrombophlebitis
  • Milk sickness – Disease from milk of cattle which had eaten poisonous weeds
  • Mormal – Gangrene
  • Morphew – Scurvy blisters on the body
  • Mortification – Gangrene of necrotic tissue
  • Myelitis – Inflammation of the spine
  • Myocarditis – Inflammation of heart muscles
  • Necrosis – Mortification of bones or tissue
  • Nephrosis – Kidney degeneration
  • Nephritis – Inflammation of kidneys
  • Nervous prostration – Extreme exhaustion from inability to control physical and mental activities
  • Neuralgia – Described as discomfort, such as “headache” was neuralgia in head
  • Nostalgia – Homesickness
  • Palsy – Paralysis or uncontrolled movement of controlled muscles
  • Paroxysm – Convulsion
  • Pemphigus – Skin disease of watery blisters
  • Pericarditis – Inflammation of the heart
  • Peripneumonia – Inflammation of the lungs
  • Peritonitis – Inflammation of the abdominal area
  • Petechial fever – Fever characterized by skin spotting
  • Phthiriasis – Chronic wasting away or a name for tuberculosis
  • Plague – An acute febrile highly infectious disease with a high fatality rate
  • Pleurisy – Any pain in the chest area with each breath
  • Podagra – Gout
  • Poliomyelitis – Polio; Potter’s asthma
  • Pott’s disease – Tuberculosis of the spine
  • Puerperal exhaustion – Death due to childbirth
  • Puerperal fever – Elevated temperature after giving birth to an infant
  • Puking fever – Milk sickness
  • Putrid fever – Diphtheria
  • Quinsy – Tonsillitis
  • Remitting fever – Malaria
  • Rheumatism – Any disorder associated with pain in joints
  • Rickets – Disease of skeletal system
  • Rose cold – Hay fever or nasal symptoms of an allergy
  • Rotanny fever – (Child’s disease) ???
  • Rubeola – German measles
  • Sanguineous crust – Scab
  • Scarlatina – Scarlet fever
  • Scarlet fever – A disease characterized by a red rash
  • Scarlet rash – Roseola
  • Sciatica – Rheumatism in the hips
  • Scirrhus – Cancerous tumors
  • Scotomy – Dizziness, nausea and dimness of sight
  • Scrivener’s palsy – Writer’s cramp
  • Screws – Rheumatism
  • Scrofula – Tuberculosis of neck lymph glands; progresses slowly with abscesses and pistulas develop; young person’s disease
  • Scrumpox – Skin disease; impetigo
  • Scurvy – Lack of Vitamin C; symptoms of weakness, spongy gums and hemorrhages under the skin
  • Septicemia – Blood poisoning
  • Shakes – Delirium tremens
  • Shaking – Chills; ague
  • Ship fever – Typhus
  • Siriasis – Inflammation of the brain due to sun exposure
  • Sloes – Milk sickness
  • Small pox – Contagious disease with fever and blisters
  • Softing of brain – Result of stroke or hemmorhage in the brain, with an end result of the tissue softening in that area
  • Sore throat – distemper Diphtheria or quinsy
  • Spanish influenza – Epidemic influenza
  • Spasms – Sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles, like a convulsion
  • Spina bifida – Deformity of spine
  • Spotted fever – Either typhus or meningitis
  • Sprue – Tropical disease characterized by intestinal disorders and sore throat
  • St. Anthony’s fire – Also erysipelas, but named so because of affected skin areas being bright red in appearance
  • St. Vitas dance – Ceaseless occurance of rapid complex jerking movements performed involuntarily
  • Stomatitis – Inflammation of the mouth
  • Stranger’s fever – Yellow fever
  • Strangery – Rupture
  • Sudor anglicus – Sweating sickness
  • Summer complaint – Diarrhea, usually in infants, caused by spoiled milk
  • Sunstroke – Uncontrolled elevation of body temperature due to environment heat; lack of sodium in the body is a predisposing cause
  • Swamp sickness – – Could be malaria, typhoid or encephalitis
  • Sweating sickness – – Infectious and fatal disease common to the UK in the 15th century
  • Tetanus – Infectious disease characterized by high fever, headache and dizziness
  • Thrombosis – Blood clot inside blood vessel
  • Thrush – Childhood disease characterized by spots on mouth, lips and throat
  • Tick fever – Rocky Mountain spotted fever
  • Toxemia of pregnancy – Eclampsia
  • Trench mouth – Painful ulcers found along gum line; caused by poor nutrition and poor hygiene
  • Tussis convulsiva – Whooping cough
  • Typhus – Infectious fever characterized by high fever, headache and dizziness
  • Variola – Smallpox
  • Venesection – Bleeding
  • Viper’s dance – St. Vitus dance
  • Water on brain – Enlarged head
  • White swelling – Tuberculosis of the bone
  • Winter fever – Pneumonia
  • Womb fever – Infection of the uterus
  • Worm fit – Convulsions associated with teething, worms, elevated temperature or diarrhea
  • Yellowjacket – Yellow fever

Naming Patterns

Here is another article I found on naming patterns. Sorry, no source details.
Naming Patterns
Ever wonder if your family had any important family names?

Our ancestors in Ireland had a very strong tradition for naming the eldest children in each family. It’s really interesting to see this naming pattern in your own family tree, but it’s especially valuable to know for family history research.

This naming pattern was most prevalent from around the late 18th century to the middle of the 20th.

Here’s the gist of it:

• The eldest son would be named after his paternal grandfather

• The second son would be named after his maternal grandfather

• The third son would be named after his father

• The fourth son would be named after his father’s oldest brother

The amazing thing about this naming pattern is how closely it was followed across levels of Irish society and in different religious denominations. It’s very likely your family followed this tradition pretty closely. Knowing this can explain recurring names throughout your family tree and can help you when trying to decide if an ancestor you found fits in.

There was also a similar naming pattern for girls, although it wasn’t followed as closely as it was for boys. As time went on, naming fashions came to be the reason for girls names, first among wealthy families and then more increasingly among everyone.

This could be motivated by the simple fact of maiden names – once a girl would marry, her original family name would be lost. Perhaps this caused families to place less emphasis on female naming traditions.

How to use this for family history research

While you might be tempted, knowing this pattern doesn’t mean you should rush to fill in missing branches of your family tree just because you have a clue to someone’s first name.

One of the main challenges of Irish genealogy is not having anything at all to begin your search. That’s where understanding this naming pattern can help. It’s not enough to give you definitive evidence of an ancestor’s name, but it’s a great place to start looking.

If you’ve hit a brick wall or are feeling totally lost, try to estimate some names based on this pattern. It will narrow your search results tremendously, and while it isn’t guaranteed to turn up evidence of your ancestors, it could be the beginning of a trail that leads to an amazing discovery.

For instance, if you’re researching a family with the last name of Murphy (the most common name found in our Irish Catholic parish registers from County Cork, you’re going to have a lot of names to search through. But if you know that your Irish immigrant ancestor’s first name was Patrick, you now have a place to start – his grandfather may have been Patrick Murphy. Still a common name, but it’s a starting place.

While this won’t give you the answer in and of itself, it could help you find their household. You may discover that someone with that name occupied a household with other family names you are certain are correct. Even knowing that, you’ll still need more direct evidence linking your ancestry to that person, but the path will be easier if you’ve got a good hunch a certain member fits.

This naming pattern can also explain when you find seemingly duplicate baptism records from the same family. Some families thought names to be so important that if a child with one died, it would be re-used on the next born child.

When you see something like this in our Catholic Parish Records, it usually indicates the death of the older child, and tells us that this name was particularly important to the family. This was both a way to honor and remember the deceased child, while still keeping the ever important family naming tradition alive.

This naming tradition might still exist in your family to this day. Do they keep the tradition alive? If not, go check out your family tree – you may notice which names were the most important.